Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is an
American geologist, a retired NASA astronaut, university
professor, and a former U.S. senator from New Mexico.
was the twelfth and last man to walk on the Moon, as Apollo
17 crewmate Eugene Cernan exited the Apollo Lunar Module
first. However, as Schmitt re-entered the module first,
Cernan became the last astronaut to walk on and depart
the moon. Schmitt is also the only geologist as well as
the only person to have walked on the Moon who was never
a member of the United States Armed Forces, although he
is not the first civilian, since Neil Armstrong left military
service prior to his landing in 1969.
life and education
in Santa Rita, New Mexico, Schmitt grew up in nearby Silver
City. He received a B.S. degree in geology from the California
Institute of Technology in 1957 and then spent a year
studying geology at the University of Oslo in Norway.
He received a Ph.D. in geology from Harvard University
in 1964, based on his geological field studies in Norway.
joining NASA as a member of the first group of scientist-astronauts
in June 1965, he worked at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Astrogeology Center at Flagstaff, Arizona, developing
geological field techniques that would be used by the
Apollo crews. Following his selection, Schmitt spent his
first year at Air Force UPT learning to become a jet pilot.
Upon his return to the astronaut corps in Houston, he
played a key role in training Apollo crews to be geologic
observers when they were in lunar orbit and competent
geologic field workers when they were on the lunar surface.
After each of the landing missions, he participated in
the examination and evaluation of the returned lunar samples
and helped the crews with the scientific aspects of their
spent considerable time becoming proficient in the CSM
and LM systems. In March 1970, he became the first of
the scientist-astronauts to be assigned to space flight,
joining Richard F. Gordon, Jr. (Commander) and Vance Brand
(Command Module Pilot) on the Apollo 15 backup crew. The
flight rotation put these three in line to fly as prime
crew on the third following mission, Apollo 18. Apollo
flights 18 and 19 were cancelled in September 1970, but
Schmitt was assigned in August 1971 to fly on the last
lunar mission, Apollo 17, replacing Joe Engle as Lunar
Module Pilot. He landed on the Moon with commander Gene
Cernan in December 1972.
claims to have taken the photograph of the Earth known
as The Blue Marble, one of the most widely distributed
photographic images in existence. (NASA officially credits
the image to the entire Apollo 17 crew.)
on the Moon's surface, Schmitt the only geologist
in the astronaut corps collected the rock sample
designated Troctolite 76535, which has been called "without
doubt the most interesting sample returned from the Moon".
Among other distinctions, it is the central piece of evidence
suggesting that the Moon once possessed an active magnetic
he returned to the Lunar Module before Cernan, Schmitt
is the next-to-last person to have walked on the Moon's
the completion of Apollo 17, Schmitt played an active
role in documenting the Apollo geologic results and also
took on the task of organizing NASA's Energy Program Office.
August 1975, Schmitt resigned from NASA to seek election
as a Republican to the United States Senate representing
New Mexico. Schmitt faced two-term Democratic incumbent,
Joseph Montoya, whom he defeated 57% to 42%. He served
one term and, notably, was the ranking Republican member
of the Science, Technology, and Space Subcommittee. He
sought a second term in 1982, but due to a deep recession
and concerns that he wasn't paying attention to local
matters, he was defeated in a re-election bid by the state
Attorney General Jeff Bingaman by a 54% to 46% margin.
Bingaman's campaign slogan asked, "What on Earth
has he done for you lately?" Following his Senate
term, Schmitt has been a consultant in business, geology,
space, and public policy.
his term in the Senate, Schmitt sat at the chamber's Candy
is an adjunct professor of engineering physics at the
University of WisconsinMadison, and has long been
a proponent of lunar resource utilization. In 1997, he
proposed the Interlune InterMars Initiative, listing among
its goals the advancement of private sector acquisition
and use of lunar resources, particularly lunar helium-3
as a fuel for notional nuclear fusion reactors.
idea of generating significant power from helium 3 obtained
from the moon is regarded as wildly impractical.
was chair of the NASA Advisory Council, whose mandate
is to provide technical advice to the NASA Administrator,
from November 2005 until his abrupt resignation on October
16, 2008. In November 2008, he quit the Planetary Society
over policy advocacy differences, citing the organization's
statements on "focusing on Mars as the driving goal
of human spaceflight" (Schmitt said that going back
to the Moon would speed progress toward a manned Mars
mission), on "accelerating research into global climate
change through more comprehensive Earth observations"
(Schmitt voiced objections to the notion of a present
"scientific consensus" on climate change as
any policy guide), and on international cooperation (which
he felt would retard rather than accelerate progress),
among other points of divergence.
the international scientific consensus on anthropogenic
climate change, Schmitt has said that "the CO2
scare is a red herring", that the "global
warming scare is being used as a political tool to increase
government control over American lives, incomes and decision-making,"
and that scientists who might otherwise challenge prevailing
views on climate change dare not do so for fear of losing
in a 2009 interview with libertarian talk-radio host Alex
Jones, Schmitt asserted a link between Soviet Communism
and the American environmental movement: "I think
the whole trend really began with the fall of the Soviet
Union. Because the great champion of the opponents of
liberty, namely communism, had to find some other place
to go and they basically went into the environmental movement."
At the Heartland Institute's 6th International Conference
on Climate Change Schmitt said that climate change was
a stalking horse for National Socialism.
January, 2011, he was appointed as Secretary of the New
Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department
in the cabinet of Governor Susana Martinez, but was forced
to give up the appointment the following month after refusing
to submit to a required background investigation.
Schmitt wrote a book entitled "Return to the Moon:
Exploration, Enterprise, and Energy in the Human Settlement
of Space" in 2006.
lives in Silver City, New Mexico, and spends some of his
summer at his northern Minnesota lake cabin.
Schmitt and Cattle Mutilations
FBI has joined in the investigation of the bizarre mutilation
of thousands of grazing horses and cattle over an 18-state
area - attacks which have been linked to UFO's.
of the FBI role was made at a recent conference of officials
from seven states where the attacks have reached an alarming
Harrison Schmitt (R.-N. Mex.), the ex-astronaut and scientist
who organised the conference, declared: "Either
we've got a UFO situation or we've got a massive, massive
conspiracy which is enormously well-funded."
least 8,000 cattle and horses have been butchered with
surgical precision over an estimated 1.28 million square
mile area stretching from Tennessee to Oregon since the
mutilations began around 1970. The 1.28 million square
miles is more than a third of the total land area in the
continental United States.
many cases, the attacks have coincided with UFO sightings.
Baffled investigators say the strange pattern of the mutilation
includes these startling facts:
No tire marks, footprints or other signs of human
activity are found near the mutilated carcasses.
Only the blood and certain parts of the animals
usually the reproductive organs are removed.
Trace elements found on and in some carcasses are
the same as those collected after a UFO sighting in New
Buzzards and coyotes refuse to eat the mutilated
horses and cattle.
Schmitt, who received a Ph.D. in geology from Harvard
University and was a member of the Apollo 17 moon-landing
crew, said state and local law enforcement officials have
been unable to come up with leads on their own and FBI
help is needed.
date, the mutilations have been as mysterious as they're
been grisly," he said.
Justice Departement authorized the FBI office in Albuquerque
to become involved in the investigation of these crimes
on the basis that several of the mutilation killings occured
on Indian lands."
attacks have occured on animals at the Jicarilla Apache
Reservation in Dulce, N. Mex.
place we've had a mutilation, we've also had UFO sightings,"
reported Gabe Valdez, a veteran New Mexico state trooper
who has investigated more than 30 attacks.
predators are involved, he said, "we have some
predators with super powers. We find these carcasses are
being lifted up (off the ground) and later, they leave
clamp marks on the legs. It is also very hard for me to
believe that a predator can take the heart out of an animal
through a small wound in the neck."
Henry Monteith, an engineering physicist at Sandia Laboratories
which handles secret government projects, revealed that
Indians are so terrified by the mutilations, they bury
the carcasses immediately and are reluctant to discuss
what happened. Even their dogs refuse to go near the carcasses.
Monteith, who has been investigating the attacks since
they began, said Indians have told him of actually seeing
spaceships land and unload "star people" who
chase down animals and take them back to the spaceship.
have been thousands of these mutilations nobody knows
about. The Indians are usually frightened to death,"
don't say anything about it because they know it's being
done by 'star people', they know why they're doing it,
so therefore we should leave it alone."
are their exact words... The 'star people' know what they're
doing and should be trusted."
Monteith said he has no doubt that aliens from outer space
are responsible for the attacks and are using the animals
bodies as part of the study of life on earth.
other investigators police, scientists and UFO
researchers agree that UFOs are the only possible
Richard Sigismund, a Boulder, Colo., psychologist and
UFO researcher: "What few clues we have concerning
those responsible for the mutilations suggest that we
are dealing with well-equipped, highly capable airborne
entities... We are forced, I feel, to the hypothesis that
unidentified aircraft are the means UFOs."
aid in solving the mystery, District Attorney Eloy Martinez
of Espanola, N. Mex., is seeking a $40.000 grant from
the U.S. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration.
UFOs are a possibility, he said:
might be the first district attorney in the country to
prosecute an alien from outer space."