OFFICER'S GUIDE TO DISASTER CONTROL
Chapter 13 - Disaster Control and UFOs
following excerpt appeared in Fire Officer's Guide
To Disaster Control by William M. Kramer and Charles
W. Bahme. It is copyright © 1992 by Fire Engineering
Books & Videos.
has provided this for information and education purposes
only. Below is the text from Chapter 13 of the Fire Officer's
Guide To Disaster Control dealing with none other than
UFOs. On the surface, it might appear to be the author's
life-long interest in the subject of UFOs, but something
very much more important is going on here. This manual
is a national guide used by many local fire officials
in disaster planning, and it is also approved by FEMA
(Federal Emergency Management Act). With all of the denial
by official military channels of the reality of UFOs,
it surprises us to see that a manual with so much information
would even broach the subject of UFOs in such an "official"
way. Although this chapter is not an "official"
proclamation of UFOs, it serves to show how seriously
this subject may be taken by some in official positions
of the government, including FEMA.
the 1942 aerial attack by UFOs is glossed over by many
UFO researchers, it appears to have created quite an impression
on the author of this manual. As many of you will recall,
the Air Force took a considerable amount of heat from
the UFO research community following the closure of Project
Blue Book, with a training manual that was used at the
Air Force Academy, one chapter dealing with UFOs (ParaNet
has the chapter in their database). Following strong protests,
the Air Force ordered the manual revised to remove this
chapter. This chapter is much like the material below.
at ParaNet wonder if "War of the Worlds" is
being taken more seriously than anyone previously knew
thanks to Brian Wood for scanning this article.
13: ENEMY ATTACK AND UFO POTENTIAL
RESIDENTS of the United States, except for those in Hawaii,
have experienced an enemy attack on their hometown in
this century; some think they have. The Great Los Angeles
Air Raid of February 26, 1942, began at 2:25 A.M. when
the US Army announced the approach of hostile aircraft
and the cities air raid warning system went into effect
for the first time in World War II. "Suddenly the
night was rent by sirens. Searchlights began to sweep
the sky. Minutes later, gun crews at Army forts along
the coast line began pumping the first of 1,433 rounds
of ack-ack into the moonlight. Thousands of volunteer
air raid wardens tumbled from their beds and grabbed their
boots and helmets. Citizens awakened to the screech of
sirens and, heedless of the blackout warning, began snapping
on their lights . . . The din continued for two hours.
Finally, the guns fell silent. The enemy, evidently, had
been routed. Los Angeles began to taste the exhilaration
of its first military victory. "(1)
UFO THREAT - A FACT
this chapter, we will now turn our attention to the very
real threat posed by Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs),
whether they exist or not. The well-documented and highly
publicized War of the Worlds radio drama by Orson Welles
shows how even a perceived existence to alien creatures
can cause very real disaster-like conditions and panic
among a given populace. In addition, if the apparent visits
by alien beings and their space vehicles should pose any
type of threat, it will, as always, be the fire service
that is called upon to provide the first line of life-saving
defense and disaster mitigation.
April 25,1991, radio station KSHE in St. Louis, Missouri
was fined $25,000 by the Federal Communications Commission
for broadcasting a mock warning of a nuclear attack during
the Persian Gulf War. The seriousness with which the FCC
treated this case is indicative of the very real panic
that can be created from even illusionary or fictional
phenomena. Certainly if these unexplainable events become
more prevalent, the possibility of panic could be even
greater; and again, the fire department will be the agency
called upon to handle the situation.(35)
Hence, as we near the year 2000 and move beyond, any comprehensive
disaster plan should address the potential for panic and
other deleterious effects that might befall a populated
area when unexplainable phenomena occur. We will see,
as we continue our discussion in this chapter, that widespread
blackouts, communication disruptions, and other potentially
disastrous conditions have been linked directly to UFO
sightings. Hence, fire service leaders who want to ensure
that their disaster planning is complete will not neglect
an appendix to outline those things that could be done
in preparation for the occurrence of such phenomena.
this book, many of the references to actual events are
based on the experiences of both of the authors. However,
in this area of UFOs and their potential, we are relying
largely on the research and experiences of Charles Bahme.
Chuck has made a considerable study of this subject and
is acquiring many publications and VCR tapes to augment
his library on this and related phenomena. His interest
in UFOs was greatly heightened when Congress in 1969 adopted
a law (14
CFR Ch. V Part 1211 - Extraterrestrial Exposure)
which gave the NASA Administrator the arbitrary discretion
to quarantine under armed guard any object, person, or
other form of life which has been extraterrestrially exposed.
The very fact that our congressmen believed there was
a necessity for such drastic authority made Chuck wonder
if they had only our astronauts in mind when they adopted
it. Could it be applied to anyone who has had a UFO encounter?
Whether it has or not is not likely to be a topic for
DISCUSSION - WHY NOW?
subject of UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects) was not
included in previous editions of this book. The first
edition was the Handbook of Disaster Control which Chuck
personally published in 1952 following his release from
active naval duty in the Korean War. Although his services
in the conflict as Security Coordinator for the Chief
of Naval Operations involved the creation of a worldwide
disaster control organization for the protection of the
physical properties of the Navy, it must be admitted that
the directives approved for this new organization did
not reflect any significant concern for a flying saucer
threat to its shore establishment. That was in the 1950s.
Now that we are in the 1990s, it is doubtful that the
UFO potential would be brushed off so lightly by our military
security forces. This change of attitude was evidenced
as far back as December 24, 1959, when the Inspector General
of the Air Force issued the following Operations and Training
Order: "Unidentified Flying Objects - sometimes treated
lightly by the press and referred to as 'Flying Saucers'
- must be rapidly and accurately identified as serious
Air Force business...."(36)
is no uncertainty about the reality of the war between
nations on our planet and the disastrous effects of military
actions. The 200 sorties flown every hour against Iraq
in the Persian Gulf provided ample evidence of global
war's destructive power. On the other hand, there are
many persons who may believe that a discussion of the
theoretical harm that could be caused by a real or imaginary
invasion of UFOs would be 'far out!" But this is
not so for the thousands of witnesses of unexplained aerial
phenomena. To them, it is also serious business.
interest in UFOs commenced during the early morning hours
of August 26, 1942, while he was roller skating from his
house to the nearest fire station a few blocks away; the
wail of sirens had signalled his recall to fire duty,
and with the stringent blackout orders in effect. Driving
was not wise; besides, it was much more exciting to be
out in the open where he could see the spectacular aerial
"fireworks" that filled the heavens all around
him. Few residents of the U.S. had ever experienced a
real or imaginary invasion of UFOs like that which occurred
in what has become known as "The Los Angeles Air
Raid of 1942." The Army announced the approach of
hostile aircraft and the city's air raid warning system
went into effect for the first time in World War II. The
defense to this "attack" is described in dramatic
terms in the opening paragraph of this chapter.
what enemy had been routed? No one ever knew. All the
fire fighters saw in the sky were the 15 or 20 moving
"things" which seemed to change course at great
speed apparently unaffected by the flak from bursting
shells all around them. Rumors that one had been shot
down were never verified, nor was the explanation that
these zig-zagging invaders were weather balloons ever
taken seriously. In any event, for Chuck, that unforgettable
episode aroused a continuing interest in UFOs, rivalling
his professional fields of law and fire protection. The
fact that he subsequently was a member of a group whose
sighting of a flight of UFOs was authenticated by airport
radar helped to sustain that interest.
no intention of trying to prove or disprove the authenticity
of the numerous UFO encounters often related by very credible
witnesses including airline and military pilots, astronauts,
police officers, fire fighters, members of Congress, and
even a U.S. President, the balance of this chapter will
present a brief history and nature of UFOs and their alleged
occupants; their widespread sightings over the globe since
ancient times; their appearance, propulsion origin, and
possible motives for continuing reconnaissance.
quick look at some of the classic accounts of encounters
documented in numerous foreign and U.S. publications might
help us judge the magnitude of their threat, if any, to
social stability, and, if deemed desirable, propose a
fire service plan for coping with some of the conceivable
catastrophic effects that UFOs could produce on cities
and densely populated areas.
readers who already have made up their minds that there
is no such thing as a UFO notwithstanding the overwhelming
evidence to the contrary, it should be pointed out that
there is circumstantial evidence that disastrous effects
have already been attributed to UFO activity in more than
one nation, including the United States.
- WHAT ARE THEY?
Shakespeare put a fitting observation in the mouth of
Hamlet, the Prince of Denmark, that went like this: "There
are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are
dreamed of in your philosophy." Whether Hamlet was
referring to those strange lights or objects that appear
in the sky or near the ground and have no known cause,
we will never know, but the World Book Encyclopedia defines
such things as UFOs.(37)
theories have been propounded as to what they might be.
Some scientists believe that they are of extraterrestrial
origin - coming from other planets. Military officers
conjecture that they might be alien aircraft. Some attribute
them all to natural causes, such as meteors, comets, sun
dogs, light reflections, marsh gas, ball lightning, even
though they must admit that scientists cannot explain
all UFO reports in that manner. Still others are inclined
to believe that they may be forms from other dimensions
which can materialize and dematerialize at will perhaps
by making a wavelength or frequency transition so as to
become invisible to humans. Some believe they are time
travelers from the future.
J. Allen Hynek, Northern University Professor
Emeritus of Astronomy and an advisor to the Air Force's
Blue Book Project adopted a very simple classification
system based solely upon the manner of observation:
2. Daylight disks
3. Close encounters (day or night)
4. Radar readings
concluded that this system tells us nothing about the
nature of the UFOs, but can suggest a means for gathering
data.(38) He found that while a large number
of such reports were readily identifiable by trained investigators
as misconceptions of known objects or events, a small
residue (about 1,000) were not. These came from credible
witnesses from such widely separated places as Canada,
Australia, South America, and Antarctica. He concludes
with: "Although I know of no hypothesis that adequately
covers the mountainous evidence, this should not and must
not deter us from following the advice of Schroedinger:
to be curious, capable of being astonished, and eager
to find out."(39) Dr. Hynek has an
excellent, well-illustrated article on UFOs in a 1982
book which gives a detailed history of the UFO sightings,
together with the reports of some well-known people who
made them, including President Jimmy Carter while governor
have described the shapes of UFOs as anything varying
from a sphere to a boomerang. Some have resembled flying
saucers with a lid; others a glowing tube; some as semi-spherical
with colored apertures; some with reddish-orange glows,
or fire-like or sparking discharges. Incredible speed
and maneuverabilities not attainable by aircraft of any
kind are commonly observed. Many of the books and articles
in Appendix H have excellent photographs of these unexplained
visitors - photos that have been checked by experts for
hundreds of years, mysterious objects in the sky and strange
moving lights have been reported by many people, including
the military pilots in World War II who called them foo
fighters, ("Where there's Foo, there's Fire").
In the middle of the 1900s, flying saucers were increasingly
observed in the United States and other countries. Scientists
at the University of Colorado hired by the Air Force from
1966 to 1968 to study this type of aerial phenomena could
explain most of the UFO reports as a star (Venus), meteor,
planet, balloon, rocket, artificial satellite, etc. Sometimes
atmospheric conditions, aircraft exhaust trails, or unusual
lighting conditions may produce optical illusions that
observers thought were UFOs. After investigating more
than 12,000 reports, the U.S. Air Force was unable to
explain where the unexplained UFOs come from, but apparently
concluded that the national security was not threatened
by them.(41) The emphasis of the university's
team, headed by Edward U. Condon, seemed to be more concerned
with the establishment of the emotional stability or instability
of those who reported the sightings than with other evidence.
have examined the witnesses who claimed to have encountered
UFOs and even been taken aboard their craft, such as the
two shipyard workers in Mississippi, and found that they
are not unbalanced people.(42) "They're
not crackpots. There was definitely something here that
was not terrestrial."(43) Dr. J. Allen
Hynek agreed, and added. "Where they are coming from
and why they are here is a matter of conjecture, but the
fact that they were here on this planet is beyond a reasonable
Air Force, after 20 years of being deluged with UFO sightings
and spending millions of dollars on their investigation,
decided to drop the inquiry business and turned the project
over to a Kensington, Maryland, group called NICAP
(National Investigation Committee on Aerial Phenomena).
This left NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
with part of the task of trying to run UFO sighting reports,
including many by its own Apollo and Skylab astronauts.
By 1974, over a score of astronauts saw and photographed
UFOs during their flights beyond the earth's atmosphere.
in the Apollo 11 mission, which culminated in the moon
walk, astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael
Collins reported sightings of what seemed to be a UFO
during the first half of their flight to the lunar surface.
There were many more sightings
by U.S. and Soviet Astronauts. On November
11, 1966, Gemini XII astronauts Jim Lovell and Edwin Aldrin
said that they saw four UFOs linked together, and on October
12, 1964, three Russian astronauts aboard Voskod reported
that they were surrounded by a "formation of fast-moving
addition to NICAP, some of the other organizations that
study UFO phenomena are MUFON
(Mutual UFO Networks), CAUS
(Citizens Against UFO Secrecy), GSW (Ground Saucer Watch),
(the Center for UFO Studies), and APRO
(Aerial Phenomena Research Organization), an Arizona non-profit
scientific and educational organization, founded in 1952.(46)
their book UFOs Over America, authors Jim
Lorenzen charge that the CIA (Central Intelligence
Agency) has been closely involved in the collection and
suppression of UFO information. "Witnesses to the
phenomena have been bribed, coerced, and threatened by
the CIA, who wanted valuable evidence given to them alone."(47)
One reason given is that military intelligence may view
the UFOs as a tool of either a known or unknown potential
enemy. "If these vehicles prove evasive and surreptitious,
all the more reason to suspect them...the probability
looms large that the minds behind these vehicles may well
be gathering intelligence of their own."(48)
reason for secrecy may lie in the hope of obtaining knowledge
relating to advanced propulsion methods and anti-gravity
systems before other potential enemies on earth may acquire
it. Hence, though many nations are secretly investigating
UFOs, they are reluctant to share their findings. Robert
Lofton, in his book Identified Flying Saucers,
claims that the Air Force became the "goat"
in the effort of the CIA to debunk many sightings by pilots,
radar technicians and reliable civilian observers. He
thinks that the suppression of information about how dangerous
UFOs can be is wrong. After citing a case where a child
was burned over 50 to 60 percent of her body by a low
flying UFO and then taken to an Air Force hospital, no
one would explain why her clothes were not burned at the
same time. He also describes another burn case in New
Mexico and another man who recently received a sledge-hammer
like blow that knocked him unconscious by the force field
of a 100-foot diameter UFO. "The public ought to
be told the danger! . . . Nothing helps rumors and panic
more than ignorance."(49)
Donald Keyhoe describes in his book "Aliens
from Space: The Real Story of Unidentified Flying Objects",
the difficulties he had in 1957 in trying to get the truth
from government agencies after he was director of NICAP,
the world's largest UFO research organization with over
30 subcommittees in the U.S. and abroad.(50)
to some UFOlogists, the attempts at cover-up by the CIA
extend to destruction of evidence that it could not confiscate.
Apparently, some of our nation's important leaders have
been denied access to some UFO secrets in the possession
of an agency of the United States, the very existence
of which is classified above top secret.(51)
Senator Barry Goldwater, a retired Air Force Reserve Brigadier
General and pilot with many decades of flying experience,
was quoted as saying "I certainly believe in aliens
in space. They may not look like us, but I have very strong
feelings that they have advanced beyond our mental capabilities."
He said he was refused permission to check the Air Force
files on UFOs and added, "I think some highly secret
government UFO investigations are going on that we don't
know about - and probably never will unless the Air Force
discloses them."(52) He said that he
put faith in the reports of the Air Force, Navy, and commercial
pilots who reported instances where a UFO would fly near
them - right off their plane's wing - and then just zoom
away at incredible speeds. "I remember the case in
Georgia in the 1950s of a National Guard plane going after
a UFO and never returning. And I recall the case in Franklin.
Kentucky, when four military planes investigated a UFO.
One of them exploded in midair and no one knows why."(53)
by the policy of Glasnost (greater openness), the Soviet
media felt free to include accounts of UFO sightings.
A Tass report of October 10, 1989, reported a large shiny
ball or disk hovering over a Voronezh park; residents
saw the UFO land and three creatures similar to human
beings emerged, accompanied by a robot.(54)
the Russians felt no need to suppress this report which
was poked fun at in Newsweek and Time magazines(55)
but not in U.S. News and World Report: "A scant few
decades ago, both the U.S. government and the media treated
flying objects as no laughing matter - which even Congress
looked into. In 1966, Representative Ford responded to
a rash of sightings in his home state of Michigan by calling
for, and getting, a House hearing on UFOs."(56)
reasons have been advanced for the purpose of the UFOs
visits to our planet. Although some of the persons who
apparently have been the subjects of genetic investigation,
such as the family of Whitley Streiber may not agree,
the majority of those who have studied possible UFO visitors
feel that they are friendly. Mr. Streiber described his
experience as terrifying, and believes that these "little
figures with eyes that seem to stare into the deepest
core of being are asking for something. Whatever it is,
it is more than simple information. The goal does not
seem to be a sort of clear and open exchange that we might
expect; whatever may be surfacing, it wants far more than
that. It seems to me that it seeks the very depth of soul;
it seeks communion."(57) From the thousands
of reports he has studied, William Spaulding, aerospace
engineer and head of the Arizona-based Ground Saucer Watch,
believes that a pattern indicates that UFOs are here on
a surveillance mission: the fact that a majority of sightings
occur around our military installations, research and
development areas leads to the conclusion that a methodical
study is being made of the earth and its defensive and
offensive capabilities. "The phenomena is not unlike
our own space explorations: scout ship survey; soil samples;
his book Incident at Exeter, John Fuller discusses
the seeming affinity of UFOs for electrical power lines
in the north-eastern part of the United States. In a later
section of this chapter dealing with the effects of UFOs
on our terrestrial activities, we will see how this affinity
may have been responsible for causing 36 million people
to lose power over an area of 8,000 square miles.(59)
of our recent adventures into space, there are some who
speculate that UFOs are more concerned with what we will
do there than in settling here. In any event, the Air
Force's official publication (issued by the Government
Printing Office 1968) called Flying Objects says
that 'No UFO has been determined to represent a threat
to our national security.' That conclusion, however, should
not rule out less disastrous consequences than the overthrow
of our government.
POTENTIAL OF UFOS
of its past evaluations, the Air Force could be wrong
about a number of things. "It can't even guess within
a couple of billion dollars what one of its planes is
going to cost; maybe, despite the skepticism of the scientists
and other investigators, the UFOs sent from other planets
do exist and have visited earth."(60)
And maybe they have exhibited some destructive effects,
whether or not intentionally in every instance, which
we need to consider when drafting a plan for coping with
an emergency situation where UFOs are involved. Some of
these documented effects are as follows:
two principal hazards noted with relation to UFOs have
been attributed to powerful electrical fields which they
can project in a general or localized area and the psychological
effects they have produced on the general populace or
disruption of air and ground travel has often been reported
in the presence of UFOs. The ignition systems of auto
and aircraft engines have apparently been affected by
energized force fields to such an extent as to stop their
operation; the headlights and radios have also ceased
to function. Here are a couple of examples. In Buenos
Aires, on March 29, 1978, "A strange force shut off
their engine and headlights of their Citroen CG, lifted
it 15 feet off the road, then set it down a minute later
and 75 miles to the north." The driver had noticed
a yellow and violet light shining in his rear view mirror
while driving the last leg of a long stock car race, and
he realized that it was approaching too fast to be a competitor.
A month later, a Colombian bank manager and a navy officer
had their car headlights go off when buzzed by a UFO,
with the navy man suffering temporary paralysis. Other
South American countries in which similar actions were
reported around that time included Argentina, Chile, Peru,
effects have also been noted to influence the controls
and instruments of aircraft, e.g., the pilot of a Piper
PH-24 reported that his controls became inoperable when
he was approached by three disk-shaped objects, 10 to
12 feet in diameter, over Mexico City on May 3,1975.(62)
Similar cases have been reported by military pilots, illustrated
by the classic case of the near mid-air collision of an
army helicopter with a UFO on October 18, 1973, over Ohio,
where not only did both the UHF and VHF radio wave-lengths
go dead temporarily, but the downward movement of the
helicopter with its four occupants was levitated upward
by a green beam from the UFO in time to prevent its crash
into the ground.(63)
addition to the impedance of radio transmissions and reception,
such as that described in the preceding incident, telephone
interference has occurred, illustrated by the chagrin
of President Lyndon Johnson in having his conversation
from the Texas White House cut off while talking to assistants
in Washington, D.C.(64) The ability to render
inoperable all electronic forms of communications, including
those that control the launching of defense weapons systems,
has been considered within the range of UFO capability.
Whether this could extend to the erasing of recorded computer
data such as bank records, personnel data, FBI, CIA, and
NSA files, along with critical information of every kind,
is not beyond the realm of possibility.
has long been suspected that UFOs have the capability
of blacking out a city, state, or many states by exerting
a force field sufficient to overload the circuits of public
and private utility installations. "Few things are
more disturbing than to be plunged into pitch darkness
without warning; it is dangerous for masses of people.
It paralyzes cities, blocks highways, stops trains, leaves
elevators suspended between floors. In general, it simply
plays hell with the modern way of life."(65)
You would think that the power companies would have achieved
sufficient reliability in their high tech systems that
a mass failure such as that which blacked out New York
and New England in 1965 would never happen - but it did.
Although, as we have mentioned before, it was known that
UFO activity was associated with disturbances with compasses,
instruments, ignition systems, radios, etc., it was inconceivable
that it could also interfere with generation and distribution
of electrical power. Such a connection was also inferred
in November 1953, when a glowing red object went over
a residential area of New Haven, Connecticut, causing
lights to dim out on both sides of the object's path and
then come on when it went out of sight. Power failures
were also reported in association with UFOs in Brazil
in 1957 to l959, Rome, Italy, in 1958; and Mexico in 1965.
Likewise, in Uberlandia, where the power station operators
promptly closed the circuits when the UFO apparently caused
them to open, it did no good, and they were unable to
restore the power until the UFO departed.
Granddaddy of all blackouts to date was the stygian blanket
that fell over 30 million people in the north-eastern
corner of the U.S. during the early evening rush hour
period on November 9, 1965."(66) Relay
services that were supposed to automatically transfer
the load in case of failure in one area to an alternate
source malfunctioned. Military communications relying
on public power without alternate backup systems also
failed, but communications were operable to make a quick
public announcement that there was no military emergency.
Though it was largely over by the next morning, the official
explanation about a malfunctioning small device in a Canadian
hydroelectric generating plant never accounted for the
failure of millions of dollars worth of electronic devices
to shift the load when the breakdown occurred.
OVER SYRACUSE - THE BLACKOUT CONNECTION
pilots reported that UFOs were being chased across Pennsylvania
about 4:30 P.M., and electronics and construction engineers
who were driving in the area of the Syracuse airport saw
UFOs moving about 5:30 P.M., just prior to the Great Blackout.
A veteran flight instructor who had been flying over Syracuse
on a training flight saw a glowing globe over the power
lines leading to the Niagara Falls generating plant. Hundreds
of others saw the glowing object in the sky on the night
of the big power failure.
was on November 9th. On December 2nd, about 700,000 persons
in Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico also had their power
fail. It was said to have originated in a regular failure
in El Paso; then on December 5th, three nights later.
40,000 homes plus military installations in the area of
East Texas were also blacked out - overloaded! Missile
grounds (White Sands), Fort Bliss, Holloman Air Force
Base, and numerous airports were all blacked out (with
no emergency power backup), and this was when President
Johnson's telephone call to the White House in Washington,
D.C. was cut off. In response to his request for an explanation,
President Johnson was told that his calls were fed into
a cable system that went dead when the surge of power
caused by the El Paso regulator blow-up hit it, and the
backup batteries didn't work. Though it may be debatable
whether the above cases of electrical transmission failure
were merely coincidences with UFO activity, an incident
on April 18, 1962, involving a UFO that had been tracked
from New York, through Kansas to Eureka, Utah, was well
documented. The Air Force spokesman admitted that the
object had landed, and during the 42 minutes that it was
on the ground near the power station there was no power,
but it was restored when the UFO left. The object was
pursued by jet interceptors summoned from Phoenix and
Stead Field in Reno until it exploded over the Mesquite
Range in Nevada in a brilliant glare that was visible
over five states.(67)
- THE PANIC HAZARD
second major disastrous effect that UFO activity, real
or imagined, can have on the populace is the creation
of fear, panic, flight, and all kinds of irrational behavior.
We have mentioned already the rather well-documented case
of hysterical contagion and mass hysteria created by War
of the Worlds, the radio drama by Orson Welles about an
invasion of Martians. It was broadcast on Halloween of
1938 during the period of the invasions of Germany into
Austria and Japan into China. "The drama, realistically
presented in the form of news bulletins and interviews
concerning an alien spaceship landing in New Jersey, resulted
in many kinds of hysterical actions, including thousands
of panic-stricken phone calls, wildly fleeing automobiles,
and impromptu shot gun brigades."(68)
most persons reporting UFOs do not interpret them as personal
threats, it is possible that some of the large volume
of reports may be attributable to hysterical contagion.
In any case, one of the reasons often cited for the tight
secrecy on government UFO research findings is the need
to prevent the possible panic that a revelation of the
truth might arouse. Rumors that people were being abducted,
dematerialized, burned, made radioactive, rounded up and
impounded, liquidated with ray guns and lasers or shipped
off to Mars or Venus might well give rise to fear - fear
of the unknown. Hysteria could cause frightened persons
to imagine that their water was poisoned, the air contaminated
with undetectable but lethal aerosols or nerve gases.
With hundreds of UFO squadrons zooming across the landscape
from California to New York, Toronto to Mexico City, communications
disrupted, widespread power failures, airports and railroads
paralyzed, highways turned into giant parking lots of
immobilized vehicles full of terrified motorists, the
problem of restoring order and sanity would be a tremendous
challenge to all of the emergency services, assuming their
personnel would remain calm, detached, and able to resist
the human impulse to put the safety and well being of
their own families ahead of the public's. To make matters
worse, some of the more excitable gun owners might be
tempted to rush out Rambo fashion, and in utter disregard
of the damage that falling bullets might cause innocent
residents below their fallout, start firing at the evasive
objects regardless of the range.
HAZARDS - PHYSIOLOGICAL
force field affects on the physical environment - communication,
transportation, illumination, and computerized data storage
- have already been considered. We might have added that
some physical effects have been observed at locations
where UFOs have landed - circular patterns of crops destroyed
by heat or radiation and baking or sterilization of the
soil at the site.
a more practical basis, there may be grounds for concern
that more than just the environment can be adversely affected
by UFO actions. While pursuing UFOs, military aircraft
have disappeared in mid-air, exploded, and suffered harassment.
Persons on the ground have sustained serious burns, paralysis,
and "blows" from a force field, radiated emissions,
or rays and beams that have been described like that of
1980, three witnesses saw a red ball of light hovering
above houses in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, when suddenly,
a bolt of blue light shot down and two houses burst into
flames.(70) An Indiana man saw a bright
light flash pass his window; the power went off in his
house, so he went outside to investigate and found a brilliantly
lit object hovering above him; when he started to walk
toward it, his body commenced to tingle and he was unable
to move until the object disappeared. A similar tingling
sensation swept over another man in Lynn, Massachusetts,
one night when he approached a domed object with a red
glowing cone rising from a parking lot. He, too, was immobile
until the object moved out of sight. Some believe that
even animals may be at risk by UFOs; in trying to account
for the death of 15 ponies, the leader of an investigative
team believed they were crushed by the anti-gravity field
of a flying saucer as it took off.(71) Thus,
UFOs may not only have the power to control some of our
military and industrial establishment's highly technical
scientific hardware; they may also possess the ability
to impose pain and control over people who attempt to
attack them, even to the extent of "liquidating"
them in one way or another.
- EMERGENCY ACTION
view of the fact that many UFOlogists believe that we
are fast approaching a time when overt landings of UFOs
will become less remarkable, and in the absence of our
knowing whether their visits are friendly or hostile,
it would not be remiss to give some thought to the part
that fire departments might play in the event of the unexpected
arrival of UFOs in their communities. For example, what
would be your course of action as an incident commander
at the scene of a school ground where a UFO has crashed
into the boiler room, rupturing a fuel line, and ignition
has occurred in the spilling oil, endangering the occupants
of the craft who are trapped in the wreckage? If your
rescue attempts are successful, and two of the five small
alien creatures are injured but still alive, how do you
dispose of the dead and treat the survivors? How would
the presence of children on the school grounds affect
your actions? What persons and agencies would be notified?
authors have never read any advice on these matters. The
following admonition was printed on the inside front jacket
of Frank Edward's book on flying saucers:
approaches of UFOs can be harmful to human beings. Do
not stand under a UFO that is hovering at low altitude.
Do not touch or attempt to touch a UFO that has landed.
In either case the safe thing to do is to get away from
there very quickly and let the military take over. There
is a possibility of radiation danger and there are known
cases where persons have been burned by rays emanating
from UFOs. Don't take chances with UFOs!"
view of the federal law (cited earlier) empowering NASA's
administrator to impound, without a hearing, anyone who
touches a UFO or its occupants, it would be inadvisable
to make personal contact unless you are willing to submit
to NASA's quarantine requirements, should the law be invoked.
the possible physical effects of approaching a UFO, e.g.,
burns, radiation, etc., there may be psychological effects
produced by force fields that could induce a hypnotic
state in the viewer, loss of consciousness, memory relapse,
and submission to the occupants. Jacques Vallee, author
of The Invisible College cautions that we should
consider psychic effects, such as space-time distortions
experienced by percipients of craft-like devices which
appear to fade away - dematerialize - and then reappear;
of alien, strange voices or thoughts that may effect involuntary
changes in the manner in which witnesses may react in
the above warnings of Edwards and Vallee are a little
too cautious and apprehensive to adopt as a general pattern
of conduct in every situation. In the absence of overt
acts indicating hostility, there may be no danger in approaching
a landing (or landed) UFO with a positive, solicitous
attitude of wanting to be of service. This non-aggressive
mental state may be telepathically sensed by those aboard
or emerging from the craft; a form of non-vocal communication
is a possibility. It goes without saying that any display
of firearms or other weapons on your part could be construed
as unfriendly and likely to thwart your intention of conveying
a helpful attitude.
a best case scenario, you may be able to obtain guidance
as to the appropriate actions to take, whether of a life-saving
nature, e.g., in quelling a fire, abating a spill, and
of preservation of property, or even in the reduction
of apprehension on the part of your response team and
the spectators. In a less optimistic scenario, you may
have engine trouble upon approaching the scene, and radio
contact could be lost with your dispatcher. If at night,
your headlights could go out, the city could be blacked
out, and your portable generators may malfunction when
you attempt to use them for fans and portable lights.
It would certainly be an inopportune time for your comrades
to announce that they had decided to take their pensions,
any event, the incident could provide invaluable experience
for further training in coping with rare and difficult
emergencies. Whatever "inside" information you
are able to pass along to your fellow officers and citizens
of the world might help to alleviate unreasonable fear,
so that there would be less likelihood that we would ever
again experience the panic and hysteria that was created
by War of the Worlds a half century ago. Truth is the
best cure for the unknown. A list of some of the available
books on Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) is found in
fire chiefs have little confidence in disaster plans,
especially those dealing with UFOs or enemy attack. If
you develop a plan that sets forth your responsibilities,
resources, organizations, supplies information, telephone
numbers, and special data that will be useful in obtaining
help and fulfilling your role in disaster control, commit
it to an electronic medium, a computer with a capability
for continuous updating through modern word processing.
Bring it forth when the need requires. With a good plan,
good leadership, and adequate resources, you may save
many lives in any disaster, including attack from possible
Smith, Jack. "The Night L.A. Bombed." Los Angeles
Times, September 9, 1975, Part 1, p. I.
Radio Broadcast on station KSHE, St. Louis, MO, reported
on April 25, 1991.
36. Edwards, Frank. Flying Saucers - Serious Business,
NY: Lyle Stuart, 1965. p. 315.
37. World Book Encyclopedia, World Book Inc., 1988,
Vol. 20, p. 19.
38. Sagan, Carl, and Thornton Page. UFOs - A Scientific
Debate, Cornell Univ., 1972, p. 44.
39. Ibid. p. 51.
40. Readers Digest. Mysteries Of The Unexplained,
41. Steiger, Brad, Editor. Project Blue Book. NY:
Ballantine Books, 1976, p. 170.
42. Uphoff, Walter and Mary lo, New Psychic Frontiers,
Colin Smyth Ltd., 1975. p. 152.
43. Ibid., quoting Dr. James Harder, University
44. Ibid. p. 152.
45. Macomber, Frank. "UFOs Spotted by Astronauts
Still Haven't Been Identified," Santa Cruz Sentinel,
April 17, 1974, p. 30.
46. APRO's address was given as 3910 E. Kleindale
Rd.. Tucson, Arizona, 85716.
47. Lorenzen, Jim and Coral. UFOs Over America,
NY: Signet. 1968, pp. 182 et seq.
48. Ibid. p. 186.
49. Lofton, Robert. Identified Flying Saucers,
NY: David McKay Co., 1968, p. 86.
50. Kehoe, Donald, Major. Aliens From Space, The
Real Story of the UFOs, New York: Doubleday, 1972.
51. Friedman, Stanton. Cosmic Watergate, New Realities,
1979; Hvnek, J. Allen. "UFOs." This World, Aug.
30, 1981, p. 13.
52. Zullo, Allan A. "I Believe That Earth
Has Been Visited By Creatures From Outer Space,"
National Enquirer, December 1973.
53. Ibid. p. 2.
54. Press Democrat, October 10, 1989, p. A-5; also
reported in weekly news magazines; see notes 22 and 23.
55. Time, October 23, 1989; Newsweek, October 30,
1989; UFO update, Omni, January 1990.
56. U.S. News ~ World Report, "UFOs in Uncle
Sam's Closet," October 23, 1989, p.19.
57. Streiber, Whitley. Communion, NY: William Morrow,
1987, p. 15.
58. Adamski, George, Inside the Flying Saucers,
NY: Paperback Library, 1967. p. 11.
59. Fuller, John. Incident at Exeter, cited in
UFO Update, in New Realities, 1978. p.52.
60. "Shooting Down The Flying Saucers,"
Los Angeles Times, December 15, 1959, Pt. Il, p. 5.
61. Boudreaux, Richard. "South Americans Take
UFOs Seriously," Los Angeles Times, November 29,
1978. Pt. VI, p. 7.
62. See note 6, p. 224.
63. Randles, Jenny. The UFO Conspiracy, NY: Sterling
Pub. Co.. 1990, p. 105.
64. See note 1, p. 267.
65. See note 1, p. 255.
66. Ibid. p. 259.
67. Ibid. p. 269.
68. See note 4, p. 216.
69. Blundell, Nigel, and Roger Boar. The World's
Greatest UFO Mysteries, NY: Berkeley Books, 1990, p. 175.
70. Ibid. p. 176.
71. Ibid. p. 179.
72. Vallee, Jacques. The Invisible College, NY:
E. P. Dutton, 1975 p. 6.
Reading ON UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS (UFOs)
Above Top Secret, Timothy Good, William Morrow, NY, 1988.
· Aids to Identification of Flying Objects, Air
Technical Intelligence Center, Gov't Printing Office,
Supt. Doc., 1966.
· Aliens Among Us, Ruth Montgomery, Fawcett Crest,
· Aliens from Space - The Real Story of UFOs, Donald
E. Keyhoe, Doubleday, NY, 1972.
· Beyond Earth: Man's Contact with UFOs, Ralph
and Judy Blum, Bantam Books, NY, 1974.
· Breakthrough to Creativity, Shafica Karakulla,
M.D., De Vorss and Co., Marina Del Rey, CA, 1967.
· Chariots of the Gods, Erich Von Daniken, Putnam,
· Clear Intent, Barry Greenfield, Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1987.
· Communion, Whitley Streiber, William Morrow,
· Extraterrestrial Visitations from Prehistoric
Times to the Present, Henry Regnery Co., Chicago, 1970.
· Flying Saucers - Letters to the Air Force on
UFOs, Bill Adler, Dell Books, NY, 1967.
· Flying Saucers - Serious Business, Frank Edwards,
Lyle Stuart Inc., NY, 1966.
· Identified Flying Saucers, Robert Lofton, David
McKay Co., NY, 1968.
· In Search of Extra Terrestrials, Alan Landsburg,
Bantam Books, NY, 1967.
· Inside the Flying Saucers, George Adamski, Paperback
Library, NY, 1967.
· Insights for the Age of Aquarius, Gina Cerminara,
Theosophical Pub. House, Wheaton, IL, 1973.
· Intruders, Budd Hopkins, Random House, NY, 1987.
· Mysteries Of the Unexplained, Readers Digest,
Readers Digest Assn., Pleasantville, NY, 1982.
· New Psychic Frontiers, Walter and Mary Jo Uphoff,
Colin Smythe Ltd., and Bolger Pubs., Minneapolis, MN,
· Project Blue Book, Brad Steiger, Editor, Ballantine,
· Strange World, Frank Edwards, Lyle Stuart, NY,
· Strangers Among Us, Ruth Montgomery, Fawcett
Crest, NY, 1979.
· The Intruders, Budd Hopkins, Random House, NY,
· The Invisible College, Jacques Vallee, E.P. Dutton,
· The Possibility of Intelligent Life Elsewhere
in the Universe, U.S. House Committee on Science and Technology,
Govt. Printing Office, 1975.
· The Roswell Incident, William L. Moore, Grosset
and Dunlap, 1980.
· The UFO Conspiracy - The First Forty Years, Jenny
Randles, Sterling Pub. Co., 1989.
· The Unexplained, Allen Spraggett, Signet, NY,
· The World's Greatest UFO Mysteries, Nigel Blundell
and Roger Boar, Berkeley Book, 1990.
· The World's Last Mysteries, Readers Digest, Pleasantville,
· UFO Abductions, Philip Klass, Prometheus Books,
Buffalo, NY, 1989.
· UFO...Contact from the Pleiades, Lee and Brit
Elders, Genesis III Pub. Co., Phoenix AZ, 1984.
· UFOs From Behind the Iron Curtain, lan Hobana
and Julien Weverbergh, Bantam Books, NY, 1975.
· UFOs Over the Americas, Jim and Coral Lorenzen,
Signet Books, NY, 1968.
· UFOs - A Scientific Debate, Carl Sagan and Thornton
Page, Cornell University, NY, 1972.
· We Are Not The First, Andrew Thomas, Putnam &
Sons, NY, 1971.
1992, Fire Engineering Books & Videos
Park 80 West, Plaza Two, 7th floor, Saddle Brook, NJ 07662
WILLIAM M. KRAMER has baccalaureate degrees in Industrial
Management and Business Administration, a master s degree
in Industrial Relations, and a Ph.D. in Administrative
Management from the University of Cincinnati; and a master's
degree in Business Administration from Xavier University.
He has edited numerous course guides for the Open Learning
Fire Service Program and published numerous fire service
journal articles. He is chairman of the seven - University
National Open Learning Educational Consortium, Associate
Professor and Director of the Open Learning Program at
the University of Cincinnati, a District Fire Chief for
the City of Cincinnati and the educational commentator
for American Heat video productions.
(CHUCK) BAHME is the author of many fire service articles
as well as books, including the Handbook of Disaster Control,
predecessor to the Fire Officer's Guide to Disaster Control,
Fire Service and the Law, Fire Officer's Guide to Dangerous
Chemicals, Fire Protection for Chemicals, Fire Officers
Guide to Emergency Action, Firemen's Law Book, and Fire
Officer's Guide to Extinguishing Systems. After responding
to a devastating chemical explosion in the City of Los
Angeles, he wrote its Dangerous Chemicals Code, the first
comprehensive set of regulations ever adopted by any municipality
pertaining to hazardous materials. Following his naval
service in World War II, he was called upon to write U.
S. Navy: Structural Fire Fighting for the Chief of Naval
thirty years of service with the City of Los Angeles Fire
Department, he advanced through the ranks from recruit
to deputy fire chief, the rank he held at the time of
his retirement. During that period he augmented his A.B.
degree from UCLA with a Juris Doctor degree from Southwestern
University. Through the same years, he served with the
U. S. Navy: six years of active duty during World War
II and the Korean conflict, and twenty-eight years with
the Naval Reserve, in which he retired with the rank of
Bahme is an attorney at law with admission to practice
in California, before federal district courts, the Supreme
Court of the United States, and the highest court of military
appeals. He has taught courses in fire protection engineering
a UCLA, and fire administration at USC and various state,
national, and international conferences. He has served
in Europe and the Far East for the Department of Defense
and the U. S. State Department. In recent years he has
been teaching a course in Political and Legal Foundations
of Fire Protection as a faculty member of Cogswell College's
Open Learning Fire Service Program. He has also served
as the NFPA's Fire Extinguishing Specialist, its Western
Representative, and as chairman of its Committee on Hazardous
Chemicals Fire Fighting. Upon his moving to Lake County,
California, he served as the chairman of his local Kelseyville
fire district's board of directors and as a disaster control
advisor to his local Red Cross chapter.